TThorns and Thistles book jacket (Incarcerating Girls: A Bibliography of Historical Studies)he historical treatment of girls and young women confined in houses of refuge, reformatories, residential treatment centers, and training schools gets too little attention in reference textbooks on juvenile justice. To help fill in the missing history, Prison Public Memory Project contributor Russ Immarigeon has been working on the development of several bibliographies. This one is focused on major works on incarcerating girls and juvenile justice in the United States: Refuges, Reformatories, and Training Schools for Girls: A Bibliography of Historical Studies.

We are grateful to the New York Council for the Humanities for contributing to the development of this important resource for scholars, public historians, teachers, librarians, journalists, local history detectives, and others interested in researching girls’ incarceration.  These bibliographies will grow with further investigation, as well as through suggestions from readers. If you have, or know of, documents that might be included, please contact the Prison Public Memory Project at